The latest Saelig Newsletter focuses on Pico Technology news: their new 4444 4-channel differential scope and novel probes, new helpful tech videos, as well as useful tech tips. It's here: http://bit.ly/2mYhPPz
Rigol has published lots and lots of new app notes and videos to describe in detail the use of their products. 77 articles on scopes alone! 58 on spectrum analyzers, 39 on waveform generators. Quite a gold mine!
Clamp diodes are widely used in
analog electronic circuits. Like all real-world components, these diodes have
some non-ideal characteristics; this paper investigates some of these
characteristics for a few diode candidates. The AMETRIX® Instruments’ Model 101
Picoammeter is used for measuring these small currents.
Reverse biased leakage current
is a characteristic of concern for a clamp diode. Ideally the leakage would be
zero but this is the real world, so what can one live with? In a typical
application there might be two clamp diodes, one to +15 V the other to -15 V
and a common connection to the signal to be clamped. The leakage current drops
as the voltage drops, so if that signal is nearer to +10 V, then the lower clamp
diode would have more leakage than the upper one. So in such an application, a
diode with both low leakage and a fairly flat leakage vs. voltage would be
1 is plotted data of
leakage measurements versus reverse voltage. A quiet DC supply was used along
with an AMETRIX Instruments’ Model 101 Picoammeter to measure the current (and
yes, that is single-digit femptoamps you are seeing).
Comments about reverse leakage:
1.The SST4391 is rated for 35 V
gate-drain and gate-source
2.The SST4391 costs $0.057 each
3.The 2n3904 has a Vcb maximum of
4.The MMBT3904LT1G is $0.0231
5.The FLLD261 is $0.0275 each
6.The BAS16 costs $0.0151 each
7.The BAT54 costs $0.0204 each
8.The BAS70 costs $0.0323 each
9.The MMBD4148CC costs $0.0194
So even though there is a 3:1
price ratio between the most and least expensive, they are all < 6¢, so cost
is probably not a serious part of the decision process.
The forward voltage
drop is another diode characteristic to be considered for a voltage clamp.
These measurements were made as follows (the data is presented graphically in figure 2):
1.Forward bias the diode
with a quiet DC supply that has fine resolution; in this case an EDC calibrator
generator set to pulse, 1 Hz, 1% duty cycle, drive a mercury wetted reed relay.
Connect the relay contacts across DUT such that the DUT is shorted for 990 msec
and unshorted for 10 msec; this is to minimize self heating effects.
voltage with Tektronix MSO4104 scope with Model 100 Series' probes to
minimize the low forward current errors. Set the scope’s bandwidth limit to 20
MHz to minimize noise. Use the scope’s vertical channel’s offset mode and 10 mV
range, adjusting the offset knob until trace is in center of screen, then
document the offset voltage.
In conclusion, some
simple measurements can provide much insight into the components that you think
might be ideal in a given application; and they might reveal some things that
Low-cost Universal Serial Bus (USB) radio frequency (RF) signal generators have recently come on the scene in the wireless world. They promise to be game changers for many reasons. Until these devices came out, a prospective buyer had two choices when it came to RF signal generation solutions. The buyer could either purchase a $20K+ benchtop box with all the bells and whistles, or they could purchase a $6K narrowband “synthesizer”, either hard coded to one frequency, or with an RS-232 programming port to figure out. Both of these solutions would typically take eight weeks to deliver. They are generally build-to-order components.
USB RF signal generators are actually a hybrid approach to both of those options mentioned above—they can be much cheaper and deliver in a couple of days. A great (made in the USA) example is the Windfreak Technologies SynthHD Dual Channel Microwave Signal Generator for $1,279. This price is surprisingly cheaper than some RF test cables.
The device has two independent channels that can tune in 0.1 Hz increments from 54 MHz to 13.6 GHz. The SynthHD’s RF power is adjustable in .01 dB increments from -50 dBm to +22 dBm. It also has many modulation features including FM chirps. The relative phase between the two channels can be adjusted in .01 degree increments. It is a hybrid approach because the device can either be controlled with a PC graphical user interface (GUI) like benchtop test and measurement (T&M) equipment, or it can be programmed to function as a module inside a communication system without a PC, like the narrow band synthesizer mentioned above.
The SynthHD signal generator will generate sweeps. The sweeps can be single channel or dual channel. The device can sweep up or sweep down. It can also ramp up or down amplitude while sweeping. The sweep can be controlled with an external trigger to either perform a full sweep per trigger, or perform a single step. In dual channel mode you can program a constant frequency offset between the two channels for the sweep.
The SynthHD signal generator will generate hops. The GUI allows the user to program up to 100 arbitrary points with a frequency and amplitude in dBm. This table is stored onboard in nonvolatile memory. Like the sweep mode the user can then have an offset on the other RF channel, hop up the list, hop down the list, and work with the trigger input.
Additionally, the SynthHD signal generator will digitally modulate FM, AM, and pulse. FM can be a typical sinusoidal signal, or it can also be a chirp. AM can also be the t ypical sinusoid signal or it can be ramps. The modulations can be combined. Combining a pulse and a chirp allows the user to set up a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar signal. You can even combine this with the sweep function. As an electronic warfare example, you could sweep a pulsed waveform across a range of frequencies. Rates can be very slow, or in the case of FM, up to 5 KHz. Of course, all of these features can be saved to the device; it will begin sweeping on power up without a PC connected!
Use the external Trigger connection to perform external modulation such as FM, AM and Pulse. More details here!!!!
Kenneth Wyatt - November 25, 2013:
Every once in a while, I discover a product that is so incredible I wonder why it hasn’t been
publicized more widely. This is the case with Windfreak Technologies $599 miniature RF generator,
the model “SynthNV” (Figure 1). In case you’re wondering, their company is named after the
Figure 1 - The Windfreak Technologies SynthNV RF generator weighs just a few ounces and easily
fits in your hand.
For months, I’ve been seeking a small RF generator that could replace the 40-pound monster I keep
under my workbench. What really caught my eye initially was that the generator could AM modulate
the RF output - perfect for radiated immunity pre-compliance testing! In addition, it will pulse
modulate the output - perfect for testing to the MIL-STD-461 and DO-160 standards. The RF output
level is sufficient to drive a near field probe with enough field strength to investigate susceptibilities
within a product’s internal circuitry.
But wait, there’s more! Here’s rundown of the features of this palm-sized jewel. Some of these
additional features will be reviewed in Part 2 of this series.
• RF sweep generator (34.4 MHz to 4.4 GHz at up to +19 dBm output)
• Network analyzer (34.4 MHz to 4.4 GHz)
• VSWR analyzer (using external power coupler)
• RF power meter (real time)
The generator is USB powered and can run on most Windows operating systems, including Windows
8. It also includes an external power adapter input, so it can be programmed into a given state and
then disconnected from the PC and run standalone as a local oscillator or RF generator. There is a
port that can source or receive an external 10 MHz clock, as well as an RF input port for measuring
power. This port is also used for the network analyzer function.
Figure 2 - The basic user interface for the generator is based on National Instruments Labview.
The well designed user interface (Figure 2) is based on National Instruments Labview and the
provided software includes the runtime engine for those who don’t own the full Labview software. It
installed and ran just fine on my Macbook Pro with Parallels 9 and Windows 8. There are several
tabs along the left half of the panel. These select the major functions of the instrument controller.
When in manual mode, the large knob tunes the frequency in preset steps of 1kHz, 10kHz, 100kHz,
1MHz, 10MHz and 100MHz. The user may also enter frequencies directly by typing in the data
blocks or by using a keyboard control in place of the large knob. The nominal +19 dBm RF output
power is controlled by the rightmost panel. There are two buttons controlling the preset output. The
High Power button will switch between the default high power or when pressed decreases the
overall power output by about 55 dB (Low Power). A second button turns the RF on/off. The slide
control further adjusts the output power by up to 31.5 dB. Note that the power scale is “dB’ and not
the actual output power in “dBm”. This can be confusing at first, because the natural inclination is to
assume the scale corresponds to the actual power output. This requires some mental calculations (or
confirmation measurement) to set the precise output level. I suspect one slick way to confirm the
desired power level is to run the output (through attenuators) to the “RFin” port to make that
measurement. One improvement might be to redesign the slider to conform to the actual output
power level - changing the scale according to the three preset power levels.
Effective non-contact torque
monitoring can help production
quality as well as identify machine
problems before they happen.
The importance of torque measurement
in manufacturing environments is a new
concept to some, but an everyday essential to
others. Realizing the enormous cost benefits
of measuring torque in rotating systems is
sometimes not recognized by those tasked
with improving profitability. The challenge is
to be able to monitor and measure torque as
accurately, unobtrusively, and economically
as possible. For continuous-manufacturing
processes where machines are driven by rotating
shafts, machinery failure and subsequent
downtime must be avoided in order to maintain
profitability as well as consistency of output. The
effective use of precision non-contact torque
monitoring instrumentation can preemptively
identify problems that might affect machinery
reliability—extremely important for situations
where a single machine failure can lead to costly
Today we've introduced the PicoScope 4444
High-resolution Differential Oscilloscope which features four true differential
input channels and a range of accessories for measurements from millivolt to
1000 V CAT III applications. It has been designed specifically for making
accurate voltage waveform measurements on circuits that are not
ground-referenced, avoiding the dangers of equipment damage due to short
The PicoScope 4444 can facilitate
differential voltage measurements in the presence of common-mode signals, with
14-bit resolution and 20MHz bandwidth on all four differential channels and
256MSa waveform capture memory. It is ideal for the precise analysis of complex
waveforms ranging from biomedical sensors to current probes and 1000 V CAT III
power distribution circuits. The PicoScope 4444 offers a choice of complementary
1:1 low-voltage and 25:1 1000V CAT III probes to address these and other
situations. The oscilloscope has
an intelligent probe interface that can provide power for a wide range of PicoConnect
voltage probes, current probes such as Hall effect DC/AC, and Rogowski coil
type active current probes. The scope automatically
detects when a compatible probe is connected and sets the corresponding units
and vertical settings in the supplied PicoScope 6 software.
The USB-powered PicoScope 4444 is available in two kits that include key accessories:
·PicoScope 4444 Standard
Differential Oscilloscope Kit, consisting of a PicoScope 4444, three differential 1:1 probes and
one TA271 BNC single input adaptor.
·PicoScope 4444 1000 V CAT III
Differential Oscilloscope Kit, consisting of a PicoScope 4444, three 1000 V CAT III 25:1
differential probes and one BNC input adaptor.
Scientists and electronics engineers frequently need to make
low-voltage measurements in the presence of high common-mode noise or varying
offset voltages. Ground-referenced oscilloscopes require the use of two input
channels and an A–B math function to observe the differential signal of
interest. But, in addition to requiring two input channels, most scopes don’t
have a high enough common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR), nor the resolution to
make measurements with sufficient precision.Engineers working on polyphase power distribution systems need to
measure phase-to-phase AC voltages, rather than phase to ground. A
ground-referenced scope can’t be used as it will cause a short circuit.
External differential probes are a solution but they are quite expensive and
cumbersome, with each probe requiring its own power supply. The PicoScope 4444 provides the solutions for
each of these situations, but it can also be used as a general purpose scope with
all the useful features that PicoScope software provides - such as serial bus
decoding, mask and limit testing, math channels and automatic measurements.
by Pico Technology, Europe’s award-winning oscilloscope adapter manufacturer, PicoScope
4444 High-resolution Differential Oscilloscopesare available now from
Saelig Company, Inc. For detailed
specifications, free technical assistance, or additional information, please contact
Saelig 888-7SAELIG, via email: firstname.lastname@example.org, or
Customer: German elevator company with manufacturing facility in
Problem: New electronic cards are assembled by third party
companies and shipped to elevator manufacturer in the south of Brazil. The end
of production test carried out by the automatic test equipment (ATE) is slow
and gives little information about the fault location if PCB fails the test. Operators
have to follow traditional work instructions and instrumentation (PSU, scopes,
multimeter) which is time-consuming and ineffective. The test area became
a bottleneck and PCBs are being scrapped when faults are not found quickly. Similar
problems being faced by manufacturer's offices in Chile, Argentina and Mexico
which rely on R&D team in Brazil for advice.
distributor showed how the existing process could be replaced by SYSTEM 8 Modules and TestFlow. ABI introduced the following
scenario to be implemented at the third party PCB manufacturer (CEM):
ABI hardware (BoardMaster) could be
connected to an interface card (designed by mfr) populated with relays
that would switch on/off according to logic patters output by the ATM
The interface card would be linked to other modules
(eg. AMS, MIS 4, VPS) and a test fixture (bed of nails) developed for most
critical PCB designs
A detailed report would be generated including any
fault information. The report would be submitted to the R&D for
analysis and operators could run a component level test to troubleshoot
most expensive PCBs
This setup could also be put in place by other elevator
plants in Latin America
Outcome: A group
of 5 test engineers evaluated the proposal from ABI and presented the project
to the company's directors. An initial investment was approved and the order
has been placed with ABI.
GW Instek's new PEL-3000E series programmable single-channel electronic load. In the series, PEL-3031E provides 300W (1V~150V/60A) and PEL-3032E provides 300W(2.5V~500V/15A) current sink capability. Inherited from the PEL-3000 series, PEL-3000E has an easy-to-read LCD panel and user-friendly interface. This model features high speed and accurate measurement capability for electronic component, battery, portable charger and power products that require low to medium power consumption.
The PEL-3000E series is designed for current sink operation starting from 60mA and aims at measurement applications, including charger, adapter, various power supply equipment, and portable charger.
The PEL-3000E has seven operating modes. Among them, four basic operating modes are constant current, constant voltage, constant resistance, and constant power. Three other combined operating modes are constant current + constant voltage, constant resistance + constant voltage, constant power + constant voltage. Users can select operating modes based upon products' test requirements. For C.C. mode, electronic load will sink a constant current according to the set current value; for C.V. mode, electronic load will attempt to sink sufficient current to control the source voltage to the programmed value; for C.R. mode, electronic load will sink a current linearly proportional to input voltage according to the set resistance value; for C.P. mode, electronic load will initiate load power sinking operation (load voltage x load current)in accordance with the programmed power setting.
To meet the requirements of different test conditions, the Static function is to sink a constant current; the Dynamic function is to periodically switch between two sink conditions, and the Sequence function is to provide tests for more than two sink conditions. The sequence function can be divided into Normal Sequence and Fast Sequence. Normal Sequence is the most flexible mean of generating complex sequences that can facilitate users to establish a set of changing current sink conditions based upon different sinking conditions (CC, CR, CV or CP mode) and time(adjustable range: 1ms to 999h 59min 59s). Fast sequence allows time resolution of 25us to be set for the smallest step. Setting parameters for multiple steps can simulate consecutive current changes of various real load conditions. For instance, while using an electronic load to test a power-driven tool's power supply, we can first obtain waveforms by an oscilloscope and a current probe from the tool, and subsequently, use the obtained waveforms to edit simulated current waveforms, via electronic load's sequence function, to test the power-driven tool and to analyze its operational status. The Soft Start function allows users to determine the rise time of current sink that is to decide the required time to reach electronic load's set current, resistance or power value. Setting a proper rise time for Soft Start is effective to counter output voltage fluctuation caused by DUT's (power supply) transient output current. It is worth noting, General DC loads do not have the soft start function.
When conducting high speed current sink operation, the inductance effect on the cable connecting electronic load and DUT will lead to transient voltage drop on electronic load's input terminal, therefore, that will result in Voltage Non-monotonic increase. PEL-3000E's soft start function not only allows output voltage to be Monotonic increase, but also prevents inrush current and surge voltage from happening on DUT. For instance, tests using a power supply, LED and a DC load (activate the soft start function) can prevent inrush current and surge voltage from causing damages on LED.
The built-in BATT Test Automation of PEL-3000E provides battery discharge applications with more flexible discharge stop setting as well as rise and fall Slew Rate for discharge current settings. OCP, OPP test Automation for DUT (ex. Power Supply), provide users with high resolution measurement values to verify DUT's activation point. Provide users with measurement results so as to help them determine whether DUT's actual over protection activation point meets the regulations. Other than that, PEL-3000E provides users with analog control terminal to control PEL-3000E from external voltage, external resistance and switch. Analog control terminal can also monitor electronic load's status and display protective alarms.
Multi-channel signal outputs satisfy diversified signal requirements
The newMFG-2000 Series Multi-channel Function Generatorsfrom GWInstek includes both the MFG-21XX entry-level models and the MFG-22XX advanced models with up to five functional channels. Channels 1 and 2 provide high-performance arbitrary function generators up to 60MHz; Channel 3 - the RF signal generator channel, with output up to 320MHz, is a full function signal source; identical to CH1/CH2, it can output sine, square, ramp, pulse, noise, etc. as well as various RF modulation schemes such as AM/FM/PM/FSK/PWM, Sweep, Burst, Trigger. Also included in each model is a 25MHz pulse generator channel with adjustable pulse width, duty cycle, rising and falling edge time. Some models also feature a low-distortion 100kHz Power Amplifier channel - ideal for audio signals. A 150MHz Frequency Counter channel is available on some models too. All five different functionality channels operate separately and have grounds that are isolated from the instrument chassis, making these instruments ideal for floating circuit tests. A built-in DC bias voltage can also be applied to the various waveforms. The front panel, with its clear 4.3” TFT color display, allows arbitrary waveforms to be selected, edited, stored, recalled, output, and triggered from a choice of 66 built-in waveforms.
The AFG channel of the MFG-2000 series outputs sine, square, and triangle, etc. True point-by-point output 14-bit arbitrary waveforms are created with a 200MHz sample rate, 100MHz waveform repetition rate, and 16kpts memory depth. The synchronized MFG-2200 dual-channel models provide correlated functions, including synchronization, delay, sum, and coupling.
The MFG-2000 series function generator can be used with the supplied Arbitrary Waveform Editing Software to allow users to easily and quickly edit arbitrary waveforms. Its Direct Waveform Reconstruction feature allows users to retrieve waveforms from the GDS series of GWInstek digital oscilloscopes and upload them to the arbitrary generator to achieve faithful captured waveform reproduction. With the multi-functionality channels, the MFG-2000 series provides special dual channel waveforms for specific industrial needs, such as IQ modulation signals, low-frequency vibration simulation, automotive sensors, AM/FM broadcast signals, PWM motor or fan control signals, pulse synchronized signals, pulse noise, audio signal simulation, etc.
The MFG-2000 series supports various frequency and amplitude sweeps such as linear/logarithmic, one-way (saw tooth)/two-way (triangle), and others for carrying out frequency response tests on circuits and components. The tracking function of the MFG-2200 series can produce 180 degree phase offset differential signals with same frequency and amplitude. The phase function allows users to freely set phase parameters for both channels on sine wave, cosine wave, and square wave signals. The sum modulation function can combine two signals into one and output this signal via one channel, such as adding a sine waveform and a noise signal to perform speaker distortion tests.
The MFG-2000 series of function generators are ideal for a wide range of applications, including scientific research, education, R&D, production, and quality control, etc. Made by the Taiwanese test and measurement specialists GWInstek, MFG-2000 generators are available here from Saelig Company Inc.
The Cambrionix ThunderSync16, which provides 16 x
USB2.0 ports and a Thunderbolt host connection, capable of transfer speeds of
up to 20Gbits/s to allow large data transfer in the shortest possible time.
For data syncing requirements, the data transfer speed offered by Thunderbolt
delivers a greatly increased data transfer rate between a host Thunderbolt
connection and 16 attached devices than a USB2.0 connection.
The ThunderSync 16 speeds up
situations needing large data transfer - such as video file uploading or
operating system updates - when the data is required to be loaded in the
fastest possible time. It is a finished solution in a compact, durable, easy-to-use
The ThunderSync 16 supports
universal, intelligent charging of USB ports at up to 2.4A simultaneously, and
is not limited in the number of USB devices that can be attached due to each
port having its own USB host controller. For more than 16 ports, the
ThunderSync16 can simply be daisy-chained via the dual Thunderbolt ports.
To give an idea of speed: a recent lab test scenario achieved a 10x
reduction in transfer time; a 5GB file transfer to 16 devices took only 4
minutes compared to more than 40 minutes for a typical USB transfer scenario.
Thunderbolt transfer speeds are around 20Gb/s, while USB2.0 only offers
480Mb/s per port.
The ThunderSync 16 allows the
charging of multiple device types simultaneously, irrespective of manufacturer,
such as tablets, ChromeBooks, mobile phones, MP3 players, e-readers, 3D
Glasses, etc. Whatever device is connected, the pre-programmed Very
Intelligent Charging protocol insures the correct charging profile is used for
the specific product, maintaining battery performance and extending battery
life without risking damage to expensive technology products. The ThunderSync
16 is designed to operate with the complementary Cambrionix LiveView app which
provides the user with complete control and monitoring. This supplied
software demonstrates the unique benefits of Cambrionix patented technology,
and displays the charging status in detail. It shows each port, if a
device is attached, and how much energy it is using. Individual ports can
be configured for either Sync or Charge mode, or turned off. An API is
also provided for software automation scripting, essential for software QA and
mobile phone remarketing companies.
The ThunderSync 16 is
perfect for use by manufacturers, defense, security, software QA, and wearable
camera companies who perform large scale charging and data transfer. It is
powered by an internal universal power supply, and is Intel Certified, CE
Marked, UL Listed and EMC FCC tested.
Key advantages of using virtual USB driven instrumentation combined with an easy to use software platform:
1. It allows you to standardize test procedures whilst minimizing human mistakes.Manual, repetitive tests are difficult to carry out without mistakes being picked up along the line. Having the ability to set and recall instruments as well as targets and tolerances will eliminate the risk of human error. Also, your measurements will be always consistent across the team. Your staff meetings will be less about stressing the need of adopting a uniform, standard approach to testing and more about praising performance and productivity.
2. Itsaves you time.In many occasions the operator will need to take repetitive measurements across a wide range of values. Virtual instrumentation along with ABI's TestFlow (link for video) gives you the opportunity to automate the process and eliminate the need of having an operator spending time "triple" checking instructions before configuring the instrument to take the measurement thus avoid getting electrocuted. (pun intended)
3. Creation of test rigs is made easy.Instruments can be customized and combined to solve common issues. Without having to know programming languages, the most used functionalities of the default instruments already available in the software can be merged into new, personalized designs, built for specific purposes. These designs can be recalled as often as required and easily shared with other members of the team in the building or on the other side of the world.
4. Results are logged in customized reports.At the end of each test, software generated reports will be available in HTML, CSV or Database formats. These will include a full result log along with product code, batch number and operator ID. Other options include time taken to complete each step as well as the full cycle.
5. Intelligent testing doesn't need to be complicated.Combine multiple instruments to perform more complex testing actions using basic programming skills. For example, signals can be output into the circuit using an AWG and, upon sensing the correct voltage value on the test point, the DMM will trigger the DSO to start acquiring the waveform at a different test point. All this can be transparent to the user who will just need to follow the instructions on the PC monitor and attach the colour coded probes to the corresponding test points and press Start. PASS/FAIL results will be displayed depending on the results found and whether or not they match the pre-set tolerances.
If you see value in the benefits above you should be seriously considering looking deeper into the ABI'sSYSTEM 8 MIS4 module. With a price that works out at less than the price of the individual instruments the module brings under its case, the MIS 4 is supplied and supported in 60 countries by ABI global distributors. The SYSTEM 8 Ultimate Software along with with the popularTestFlow Manageris included in the package and it's free of any maintenance/plug-ins/service charges. You get software updates straight from the manufacturer's website without paying anything extra for it.
Check out a case study showing how a leading technology manufacturer achieved 50% reduction in their end of line measurement process with the MIS4 + TestFlow.
If you are designing or verifying feedback systems such as power supplies, audio power
amplifiers, servo amplifiers and physical positioning systems it is very helpful to measure the
Gain/Phase response of the feedback loop. You can use the Phase Margin as a measure of
stability. Values of 50-60 degrees represent the optimal response to a step change in load or
signal, without oscillation or sluggishness.
The Cleverscope Frequency Response Analyzer
(FRA) uses the CS701 isolated Sine Wave Generator to stimulate the feedback loop at the output
of the power supply or amplifier - just where a load would be applied. You don't need an
injection transformer as more traditional approaches use, which means you get operation from
DC to 65 MHz, no distortion from the transformer, and lower cost.
Using a CS328A-FRA you
can plot and visualize stability and transient response on a live system.
The 300 V RMS isolated CS701 can be used on mains powered systems safely, while the +/-
24V DC offset capability of the input to the CS328A-FRA means you can measure the response
down to DC in power supplies of up to +/-24V. For higher voltage power supplies, use AC
In addition you can use the CS328A-FRA to measure the Impedance and Phase of feedback
networks, transformers, PCB power planes, capacitors, resistors and inductors.
The FRA Control
Panel makes is easy to set up everything in one place - you don't need to know how to use the
rest of the Cleverscope system - and you can also measure Capacitance, Inductance, Effective
Series Resistance, Dissapation Factor and the Quality Factor of components. Using the FRA
control panel you can fully evaluate a transformers transfer response, the primary and secondary
inductances, the leakage inductance and interwinding capacitance, all over frequency. Using DC
offset you can check saturation and DC sensitivity. You don't need to buy an expensive Network
Analyser because the Cleverscope FRA does all this for you over a 0-65Mhz frequency range!
Many serial protocols used for chip-to-chip communications are very similar to the 'Serial
Peripheral Interface' (SPI).
SPI is characterized by poor topology and bad system scaling - hence the need for another protocol.
Byte Paradigm's SPI Storm can create a custom protocol tailored to your exact needs. SPI Storm is able to read / write with user-defined serial protocols. Each protocol can be defined as a sequence of 'segments'.
SPI StormTMis an advancedSerial Protocol Host Adapterfrom Belgian company Byte Paradigm - controlled from a PC through a USB interface. SPI Storm can access ASICs, SoCs, FPGAs and other digital embedded systems that use serial protocols at speeds of up to 100 MHz at the I/O lines. Various serial protocols can be chosen from a standard library that includes: SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface), variants of SPI on 3 wires, and for the first time, dual-SPI and quad-SPI protocols.SPI Storm StudioTMsoftware, provided free with SPI Storm, allows user-specific definition of custom protocols, including those requiring bi-directional signal lines.
In addition,SPI Stormfeatures an 8-bitgeneral-purpose output port that can be synchronized with the serial port, to extend the number of available signals for even more complex interfaces. With 32 MB memory, 100 MHz operation and 3 specialized ports (a flexible serial port, 8-bit GPO and an 8-bit input trigger port), SPI Storm targets ASIC, SoC, FPGA and embedded system testing and debugging, when there is a need to access and interact in real time with interfaces that use standard and user-defined serial protocols.
Powered either from the USB bus or from an external power supply,SPI Stormis a versatile3- and 4-wire SPI exerciser/analyzer which uses aUSB 2.0 high speed interface. This permits very fast signal analysis for debug, programming and testing of chips and electronic boards that use SPI for chip-to-chip communications. SPI Stormcan act as both a PC-controlled master (exerciser) and as a SPI protocol sniffer (analyzer).
“SPI Storm is the direct result of discussions with – and requests from - our customers,” saysFrederic Leens, Sales & Marketing Manager at Byte Paradigm (Belgium). “They defined this product from the start - they wanted more protocols, more flexibility in defining protocols, higher speeds, and simplified ease of use.